Iraqi Leaders post Othman Empire
1. General Stanley Maud: 11 March 1917-18 Nov 1917 (Occupation mandate)
A domineering military man transferred to Iraq to enforce the besieged British forces in Kut (South East Baghdad). On the 19 March 1917 announced that they came as a liberator & not occupiers. 14 Nov 1917 attended a party in a Jewish school. Once he returned to his tent he got Cholera and died on the 18 Nov 1917. Buried in the British graveyard in Bab Al Moadham in Baghdad.
2. Arnold Talbot Wilson: 1918-1920 (Occupation mandate)
A young officer (34 years). Failed in Iraq because of his lack of understanding about the Iraqi society & because of his believes that the white man should lead others! He always said that the Iraqis should be governed directly by the British! This created huge unrest and revolt in 1920 resulted in his replacement by PC.
3. Percy Zachariah Cox: 1920-1922 (Occupation mandate)
Opposite to AW he was wise, quiet and understands the Iraqi personality and society. He paved the way for the first Arabic government in Iraq by Faisal I. He also suggested the creation of the Iraqi army (see my previous post 5 Jan 2004). When King Faisal I become ill he governs directly and used force to crush the national uprising.
4. Abd Al Rahman Al Nakeeb: 1920-1921 (Head Interim Government)
He was the head of the interim government which was appointed by PC from 27 Nov 1920 until 23 Aug 1921 when King Faisal I take over. Then he becomes PM for 3 times until 1922 when he was replaced by Abd Al Mohseen Al Sadoon.
5. King Faisal I: 1921-1933. (Monarch)
Born in Taif (Hijaz) and his father is Al Hussien Ali Al Hashimi. His ancestry go to Al Hassan Al Mouthana the son of Al Hassan the son of Ali bin Abi Taleb the cousin of prophet Mohammed and the husband of his daughter Fatima. He fought the Turk with his father and they make an alliance with the British. He was the commander general of the Arab troops which fought with the British in Palestine and Syria against the Turk. He entered Syria 1918 and appointed King but expelled by the French after they captured Syria. He stayed then in the UK until 1921 when Winston Churchill appointed him for Iraq! He was a reformist. During his reign a constitution was created and Iraq's relations improved with other countries. He died from heart arrest in Bern 8 July 1933 and buried in Baghdad.
6. King Ghazi I: 1933-1939 (Monarch)
Born 1912 in Makkah. He came to Iraq 1924 when named as Crown Prince. He studied in Harrow College in the UK. Then he studied in the Military academy in Baghdad. He died by car accident while driving his car 4 April 1939. The army start many coups during his reign.
7. King Faisal II: 1939-1958 (Monarch)
Born in Baghdad 1935 and studied there. He was under the regency of his uncle Prince Abd Al Elah after his father death! H e want to the UK Harrow College and return back after 5 years in 1953 and received his full duties in 2 May 1953 until the coup of 1958.
8. Prince Abd Al Elah Ali: 1939-1958 (Monarch)
Born in Taif 1912. Regency on Faisal II because of his age. In 1941 he fled to Basrah after a major unrest in the country due to the British involvement in every decision of the government. The ministers then appointed Prince Sharaf as a regency on the King (10 April 1941-31 June 1941). The British government refused this. A big fight erupted between the Iraqi army and the British army resulted in large losses from both sides. At the end the British army brought Abd Al Elah back. He was killed in 14 July 1958 with Faisal II in their palace after the republican coup which put an end to the Monarch.
9. Mohammed Najib Ar-Rubai: 1958-1963 (Head of State Council-Republic)
He was a professional army officer with Qassem coup.
10. Abdul Kareem Qassem: 1958-1963 (Commander of the national forces)
Born 1914 in Baghdad and moved with his father to Kut. He came back to Baghdad 1927. His first job was a primary school teacher in Al Shamiah in Middle Euphrates area 1932. He then was accepted in the military academy and joined many courses and trainings in and outside Iraq. He led the coup with the (free officers) and put an end to the Monarch in 14 July 1958. He was the PM and the commander in chief of forces until the power was taken by another coup. He was executed in 9 Feb 1963 by the Baathist and Arab Nationalist.
11. Abdus Salaam Arif: 1963-1966 (First President) by (Coup)
Born 1921 in Baghdad and studied there including military academy. He was among what is called the (free officers) with Qaseem and become PM after the coup. He was then expelled from his positions by Qaseem and appointed as Ambassador in Germany. He tried to topple Qaseem and was sentenced to death but changed to prison then freed later on. He led a coup with the Baathist 8 Feb 1963 resulted in him being the first president of Iraq because Qaseem remained as a PM and haven't appointed himself as a president! In 18 Oct 1963 he turned against his partners the Baathist, expelled them from power and put some in prisons. He died by a mysterious helicopter crash in Basrah 13 April 1966. He was described as having racial discrimination and antipathy against the Shiite majority in Iraq!
12. Abdur Rahman Arif: 1966-1968 (2nd President) (Inheritance from brother!!)
He born 1912 and was like his brother army officer. 16 April 1966 appointed as the President!! He then was given higher military rank!! On 17 July 1968 he was arrested after the black coup of the Baathist again!
13. Ahmad Hassan Al-Bakr At-Tikriti: 17 July 1968 -16 July 1979 (Coup)
Born 1912 in Tikrit. Another army officer who joined the republican coup but sacked due to his support to Arif. In 1963 he was central in Arif's coup against Qassem & become PM after they killed Qassem! 6 months later he was dismissed by Arif with his Baaths members. In 17 July 1968 Bakr and Baath controlled power by a coup. Soon his first cousin Saddam cooperates closely with him and the programme of executions by Saddam started from 30 July 1968 after they turn on their fellows. The real power was gradually and progressively pulled from Bakr to Saddam. By 1979 things have ripened well for Saddam especially after Iran khomeni revolt against Shah and the disagreement between Bakr and Saddam about Syria. Saddam and Hafiz Assad were rivals about their intentions to led and many other things. The West also supported Saddam because of Iran so he forced Bakr to resign and put him under house arrest in ignominy. Bakr died under mysterious circumstances believed to be poisoned by Saddam in 4 Oct 1982.
14. Saddam Hussien At-Tikriti: July 1979-8 April 2003! (Multiple Bloody Coups)
Born 28 April 1937 in Ouja village near Tikrit. Ouja in Arabic means anomalous or not straight or not right! There are lots of roamers and doubts about his life but the certain thing that he was a killer from his early years. He killed his brother in law in 1958 because the later was communist! He was among those attempts to assassinate Qassem in 7 Oct 1959. He flees to Egypt via Syria and returned back in Feb 1963. Two weeks after 1968 Baath coup he took charge of the internal security and undertook major purge with his half brother Barzan of their fellows. Took over from Bakr 16 July 1979 and immediately called for a meeting of the high Baath members during which he was reading names from a list in front of him while smoking a cigar. As soon as he calls a name the person stand up and special security men drag him out for death! It was a real death party! The whole Baath system was horrified and from then on the Baath was nothing but Saddam! 22 sep 1979 he invaded Iran in a bloody war lasted for 8 years. He used the war as a cover to commit crimes of mass killing against Shiites and Kurds. 28 March 1988 attacked Halabja with WMD (chemical) by his cousin Ali chemical and killed at least 5000 Iraqi civilians in one day! 2nd Aug 1990 invaded Kuwait which led to Um Al Maarek (better called Um Al Mahalek)! This followed by one of the most sever embargos in the history lasted for 12 years! March 1991 he committed one of the bloodiest crimes in the history against mankind by crushing the revolt of Shiite and Kurds! He ordered his thugs led by the entombed Hussien Kamel and Ali chemical and others like Mohammad Hamza to kill a decided percentage from each Province which revolted against him calling them the Black Provinces. The Baathist then have to take certain percentage of people from these provinces. They called the people by macro phones to gather them in one of the public places or outside their cities and towns. Then they collect these people women, children, elderly, young, handicapped, any thing just to fulfil the percentage ordered by Mr President and took them to kill them and buried them in mass graves which were later discovered after his fall. During the years of sanction Iraq declined severely in every aspect but Saddam and his Sons and family lived a more prosperous life. His ambitions for control remained same. He used the suffering and the tragedy of the Iraqi people for his own propaganda. He remained defiant in spite of the lack of the sovereignty of the state due to the inspections by the UN. The WMD was a key issue for the conflict with the international community led by the US. Indeed the mass graves are the best proof for the WMD. After many UN resolutions the US, UK and Spain gave Saddam a golden opportunity to leave with his Sons on 17 March 2003 but he rejected it. France, Russia and Germany stand against the war (in a way with Saddam). War started on 20 March 2003 and Baghdad fall down on the 9 April 2003 (indeed liberated from the most tyrant regime on earth)! 22 July 2003 Saddam's Sons killed and went to the hell! 14 Dec 2003 Saddam was captured near Tikrit in Aldor in a the rat whole!
15. Jay Garner: 21 April 2003-12 May 2003 (Occupation)
Born 15 April 1938. He is a retired Lt General in the US Army. He was appointed as the Director of Reconstruction & Humanitarian Assistance for the post war Iraq shortly after Saddam fall. He was criticized for not doing enough to stop the lawlessness in Baghdad & replaced by L Paul Bremer. He runs the relief mission for Kurdish area after 1991 war. He is an expert in the missile system and was the Army Space and Strategic Defense Command under Resident Reagan. After retirement as Assistance Vice Chief of Staff in 1997 he became president of SYColeman which is a defense missile specialist contractors. During his appointment in Iraq he was on an unpaid leave from this company. J Garner also worked closely with the Israeli defense forces.
16. Lewis Paul Bremer III: 12 May 2003-? (Occupation)
Born 30 Sep 1941 in Hartford, Connecticut. Graduated in Yale University with BA 1963, then went for Master Business in Harvard University 1966 but he joined the Foreign service as officer in Kabul Afghanistan. He studied in the Institute of Politics, University of Paris for CEP certificate. He was appointed as Economic & commercial Officer in Blantyre, Malawi 1968-1971. In 1972-1976 he was an assistant to Henry Kissinger in the State Department. 1976-1979 he was Deputy Chief of Mission in Oslo. 1976-1981 Deputy Executive Secretary of State. 1981 Executive Secretary & Special Assistant to Alexander Haig. 1983 US ambassador to Netherlands. 1986 Ambassador at Large for Counterterrorism. 1989 managing director in Kissinger Associates consulting firm. Also Chairman & CEO of insurance services belong to Marsh and McLennan companies Inc. 1999 Chairman of National Commission on Terrorism. 2001 Co-Chair the Home Land Security Task Force the Heritage Foundation. He speaks English, French, Farsi, German, Norwegian & may be little Arabic with Iraqi axon! He is married to Frances Winfield and has a daughter and a son. He was appointed as the Civil Administrator of Iraq after J Garner.
He arrived to Basrah airport with Gen. Richard Myers and on his arrival announced that "The coalition did not come to colonize Iraq," and he said "We came to overthrow a despotic regime. That we have done. Now our job is to turn and help the Iraqi people regain control of their own destiny."
He survived ambush 19 Dec 2003 in Baghdad. Until now the major things happened in Iraq are; the approval of the Interim Governmental Council of Iraq 13 July 2003, the dissolution of the 300,000 Iraqi army, the capture of Saddam 13 Dec 2003 but the situation though better still unstable and the services are not yet back to work with very bad unemployment status and damaged infrastructure.